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Fixatives in Perfumes and Fragrances

Definition of Fixatives

Fixatives are compounds or materials that slow down the evaporation rate of volatile compounds in perfume or fragrance compositions.

Fixatives, also known as fixers, can be grouped into four categories [1]:

(i) True fixatives

Materials that slow down the evaporation of other perfume components through adsorption due to their high molecular structure, such as benzoin.

(ii) Arbitrary fixatives

Odorous compounds that impart a specific note to the perfume throughout all stages of evaporation of other fragrance materials in the composition, like oakmoss.

(iii) Exalting fixatives

Act as odor carriers, enhancing, reinforcing, or carrying the vapors of other perfume materials in the composition, such as musk.

(iv) So-called fixatives

Odorless crystals or viscous liquids with high-boiling points, which help increasing the overall boiling point of the perfume composition, for example, amyris oil.

Many perfumes or fragrances are used in various products such as leave-on skin products, colognes, personal perfumes, anti-perspirant deodorants, and hair colognes. However, the volatile compounds tend to lose their character rapidly, especially the top and middle notes. The use of fixatives can extend the life of these fragrances and preserve their initial character and intensity. Additionally, good fixatives should not alter the aesthetic characteristics of the product [2].

The term "fixatives" refers to agents capable of influencing the fragrance profile by affecting the rate of fragrance evaporation. They can lower the vapor pressure of fragrance materials and increase their adherence to the substrate, ensuring a longer-lasting impression of the fragrance [3]. Typically, fixatives constitute the base notes in perfumes and are used at concentrations of 3-5%.

Explore a Variety of Mitra Ayu Fixative Products

Sandalwood oil (from the wood of Santalum album) is a pale yellow to yellow, viscous liquid with sweet-woody and balsamic odor. It is blended well with rose, violet, tuberose, clove, lavender, bergamot, etc., and used as common blender fixatives in countless woody-floral, oriental-floral perfume types. Given notes that as a background note and sweet fixatives in amber perfumes, sandalwood oil is almost obligatory and blends beautifully with the ionones, methyl ionones, phenylethyl alcohol, hidroxycitronellal, eugenol, linalool, geraniol, etc. [1]. Mitra Ayu produces its sandalwood essential oil by steam distillation and also by Supercritical CO2 Extraction.

Patchouli oil is commonly used as fragrance, body butter, sunscreen, aromatherapy, and fixatives ingredients. The fixatives effect on patchouli oil is caused by the sustention of patchouli alcohol [4]. The oil blends beautifully with labdanum, vetiver, sandalwood, lavender, rose, bergamot, and many more. Patchouli oil forms an important ingredient in oriental bases, woody bases, powder-type perfumes, etc. [1].

Mitra Ayu offers various grades of patchouli oil processed by steam distillation, molecular distillation and supercritical CO2 extraction. We also produce the premium grade of Patchouli Alcohol 65% and Patchouli Alcohol 99% crystal.

Vetiver oil, derived from the root of Vetiveria zizanoides, is an amber-colored to grayish-brown, olive-brown, or dark-brown viscous liquid with a sweet and very heavy wood-earthy scent. Vetiverol is responsible for the suave and sweet-woody odor, while vetiverone is responsible for the bitter-earthiness scent. Esters of vetiverol, such as vetiver acetate ester, have higher boiling points and may have very little odor value but exhibit excellent fixative properties.

Vetiver oil is not only used as a fixative but also contributes to the fragrance in bases, such as woody-aldehydic bases, moss and wood notes, rose bases, and more. Vetiver oil blends well with compounds like ionones, linalool, cinnamic alcohol, patchouli, sandalwood, lavender, and isoeugenol [1].

Mitra Ayu offers various types of Vetiver Oil from Java, including Vetiver Oil Java Crude produced through steam distillation, Vetiver Oil Java CO2 extracted via supercritical CO2 extraction, and Vetiver Oil Java MD produced by steam distillation followed by a molecular distillation process.

Benzoin Sumatra is a natural balsamic resin from Styrax benzoin. It is widely used in perfumery, especially in soap perfumes where its fixatives effect is highly valued. Benzoin Sumatra can be used in perfumes with a more harsh-balsamic, sharp-floral character, such as hyacinth and new-mown hay [1]. Mitra Ayu offers Sumatra benzoin resinoid in pure form, as well as diluted in solvents, such as: ethanol, benzyl benzoate and dipropylene glycol.

For any questions about Mitra Ayu fixative products, please contact us at or send us a message here.



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