Production and Utilization of Patchouli Oil in Indonesia

Patchouli (Figure 1) with the scientific name of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth., a member of the Lamiaceae family, has been used for a medical plant in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medical systems for centuries (Peter, 1997). It is well-known also as the aromatic plant producing an essential oil called by patchouli oil which is extracted from all parts of the plant especially leaves. The patchouli oil has a great commercial value in the perfume and cosmetic industries due to it has a unique woody odor (Anonis, 2007), long lasting and strong fixative properties (Adhavan et al., 2017), and one of the most important materials available to the perfumer (Haarmann and Reimer, 1985). On the human health, the patchouli oil has several beneficial effects to treat dysentery, diarrhea, cold without fever, vomiting, and nausea (Swamy et al., 2015) as well as anti-inflammatory (Chen et al., 2017). In addition, the patchouli alcohol has demonstrated numerous bioactivities, such as anti-insecticidal (Park and Park., 2012), anti-bacterial and anti-fungal (Adhavan et al., 2017), etc.


Figure 1. Patchouli plant


The demand of patchouli oil in perfumery and other markets has increased dramatically worldwide. Van Beek and Joulain (2018) revealed that approximately 90% of global production of 1,200−1,300 metric tons per annum was realized in Indonesia, although this value is slightly lower compared to the report by Swamy et al. (2015), Directorate General of Estate Crps, Ministry of Agriculture (2020), and others about 2,000 tons of patchouli oil. The production of patchouli oil in Indonesia from 2015 to 2021 was relatively constant in the range of 1,937−2,207 tons (Table 1). It was estimated to occupy the third position of all essential oils produced by Indonesia in 2016 and 2017, after that until 2020 its position was declined to the fourth after turpentine oil, clove oil, and citronella oils (DAI, 2021; Gunawan, 2021).


Table 1 showed the constant productivity and production of patchouli oil until 2021. However, the cultivation area of patchouli had declined approximately by 20% because patchouli can not be planted in the same location and indeed known as a very nutrient hungry plant. In addition, there are other reasons caused by inappropriate environmental factors (BP2LKH, 2016) and viruses-caused diseases (Noveriza et al., 2021) as well as farmers decision of switching patchouli with other higher economic value crops (Arifin, 2019).


Generally, there are three species of patchouli plants that are cultivated in Indonesia and they are differentiated according to their morphological character, quality and quantity of patchouli oil, and resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses (Nuryani, 2006). Guenther (1952) reported those species as P. cablin Benth. called by Aceh patchouli “nilam Aceh”, P. heyneanus Benth. called by Java patchouli “nilam Jawa”, and P. hortensis Becker called by nilam Sabun.


Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMCRI) has developed 5 excellent varieties of patchouli, i.e., Tapak Tuan, Sidikalang, Lhokseumawe, Patchoulina 1, and Patchoulina 2 (Table 2). Production and content of patchouli oil as well as the content of patchouli alcohol from those excellent varieties have values that are significantly different (ISMCRI, 2022). Sidikalang variety has the highest values for production (624.9 metric tons/ha/year) and content (4.2%) of patchouli oils, while Patchoulina 1 variety contains the highest patchouli alcohol (36.3%). Sidikalang shows a high tolerance to wilt disease caused by bacteria and nematodes (Nuryani, 2006).



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References

Adhavan, P., Kaur, G., Princy, A., Murugan, R. (2007). Essential oil nanoemulsions of wild patchouli attenuate multi-drugresistant gram-positive, gram-negative and Candida albicans. Industrial Crops and Products, 100: 106–116.


Anonis, D. P. (2007). Woody notes in perfumery: patchouli in fragrances, part II. Perfum Flavor, 32: 30–35.


Arifin, P. (2019). Scents of patchouli – A journey in Time. Presented at the IFEAT International Conference, Nusa Dua, Bali, 29 September – 3 October.


Balai Penelitian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan (BP2LHK). (2016). Panduan budidaya nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) dan produksi minyak atsiri. Accessed at 3rd July 2022. http://forclime.org/bioclime/bioclime.org/publications/Manual_Budidaya%20Nilam%20dan%20Minyak%20Atsiri.pdf


Chen, X.-Y., Dou, Y.-X., Luo, D.-D., Zhang, Z.-B., Li, C.-L., Zeng, H.-F., Su, Z.-R., Xi, J.-H., Lai, X.-P., and Li, Y.-C. (2017). β-Patchoulene from patchouli oil protects against LPS-induced acute lung injury via suppressing NF-κB and activating Nrf2 pathways. International Immunopharmacology, 50: 270–278.


Dewan Atsiri Indonesia (DAI). (2021). Indonesia: Estimated essential oil production 2014–2020 (metric tons).

Directorate General of Estate Crops, Ministry of Agriculture. (2020). Statistical of National Leading Estate Crops Commodity 2019–2021. Jakarta.


Guenther, E. (1952). The Essential Oils. D. van Nostrand Co., Inc. New York. 2nd Ed. III p. 552–574.


Gunawan, R. (2021). Rantai nilai mintak atsiri Indonesia. Accessed at 9th May 2022. https://tin.ipb.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/EO-4-Milenial-presentation-value-chain.pdf


Haarmann & Reimer. (1985). Guide to Fragrance Ingredients. Vol. 4. Hamburg: Gloess Publishing; p. 144.


Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMCRI). (2022). Nilam. Accessed at 30th March 2022. https://balittro.litbang.pertanian.go.id/?page_id=6053


Noveriza, R., Mardiningsih, T. L., Nefri, J., and Riffi’ah, S. (2021). Effectiveness of clove nano biopesticides against mosaic virus in Patchouli. Planta Tropik: Jurnal Agrosains (Journal of Agro Science), 9: 82–89.


Nuryani, Y. (2006). Budidaya Tanaman Nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth.). Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Aromatik.


Park, H. and Park, I. (2012). Larvicidal activity of Amyris balsamifera, Daucus carota and Pogostemon cablin essential oils and their components against Culex pipiens pal-lens. Journal Asian-Pacific Entomology, 15: 631–634.


Peter, H. (1997). Patchouli – the colours within the darkness. International Journal of Aromatherapy, 8: 18–22.


Ramachandra, K.M., Vasundhara, M., Farooqui, A.A., and Srinivasaappa, K.N. (2002). Evaluation of patchouli (Pogostemon patchouli Benth.) varieties in relation to different plant densities. Indian Perfumer, 46: 7–14.


Swamy, M.P., Mohanty, S.K., Sinniah, U.R., and Maniyam, A. (2015). Evaluation of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) cultivars for growth, yield and quality parameters. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 18: 826–832.


Van Beek, T.A. and Joulain, D. (2018). The essential oil of patchouli, Pogostemon cablin: A review. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 33: 6–51.




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